Karl Fischer titration is defined as a titration method that uses either volumetric or coulometric titration to determine the water quantity present in a given analyte. This method, which is used for quantitative chemical analysis, was developed in 1935 by the German chemist named “Karl Fischer.” Today, the specialized titrators (which are called Karl Fischer titrators) have been made available to carry out such titrations.
The principle of Karl Fischer’s titration is completely based on the oxidation reaction between sulphur dioxide and iodine. Water reacts with sulphur dioxide and iodine to form hydrogen iodide and sulphur trioxide. When all the water is consumed, it reaches an endpoint. The chemical equation that takes place for the reaction between sulphur dioxide, iodine, and water (which is employed during the Karl Fischer titration) is given below.